Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Amenhotep Iv During the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt, peace reigned throughout the nation. Egypt's enemies the Hyksos had been removed from rule and Egypt prospered. In fact she become an empire. By the time Amenhotop III sat on the throne Egypt was a land of wealth. Amenhotop was considered to be an equal or better Among other rulers throughout the area. Other rulers from neighboring lands refer to him as brother. Life in the royal house was grand. He built a huge palace in Thebes which, included a lake built expressly for his wife, Tiye. He also built many temples in the city of Thebes. One such temple was built to Amen. This temple was decorated with gold and silver, precious stones, and many royal statues in granite. He also built a huge temple to Mut, Amen's consort, with 600 statues of the line headed goddess, Sekhent. But most impressive was the temple he built for himself in Lexor. This temple shows the amount of wealth that royal house of Egypt had. It contained 2.5 tons of gold, 215 lbs. of turquoise, 3 tons of electrum, 1.5 tons of bronze and 524 lbs. of copper. There at that temple he built two large statues or colossi at the temple entrance. Not only was the royal house rich but there was also a sense of style throughout the palace. He set the standard for beauty and art. He showed discriminating taste by using his money to patronize many craftsmen. The many paintings and statues of this time show that the artists and craftsmen had great confidence in their ability to paint, sculpt, create jewelry and build. This confidence of course came from the king's desire for beautiful art. Paintings depict Amenhotop as a skilled warrior and hunter, even though Egypt was at piece and he did not have to lead armys into battle. This was considered the traditional role of the Pharaoh. Also during this time music became more elaborate. The lyre was being used after being brought from Asia. And the harp now contained 20 strings. Add to this the lute and double pipes and a full orchestra is now created. There is much trade with Nubia, Asia, Babylonia, and. Mitanni In fact so much gold was being taken out of Nubia that the king could afford to give it as gifts to his brother rulers, such as the king of Babylon, Kallimma-Sin. It was considered an honor for the sister or daughter of a neighboring King to marry the king of Egypt and enter his royal house. These marriages, along with the trade and gifts of gold, helped Egypt stay at peace with its neighbors. There's no doubt that Egypt with this large wealth and army was a force to be reckoned with in the area. And none of Egypt's neighbors had the will to threaten Egypt's power. During this time Egyptians worshiped many gods. The most beloved god was Re, the son god. Egyptian religion revolved around the stable order of things. Yet this was a most adaptable religion. A god's importance was determined by the importance of the city is people worshiped him. Each village and city had its own major god. but depending upon the whims, desires and needs of the people these gods could take on the attributes of other gods, or be combined with other gods to form a more powerful god. Horus, the god of rulers, for example and many combinations or forms. When Thebes became the capital of Egypt it's god Amen became important and was combined with the sun god Re to become Amen-Re. And he was now considered King of gods. Amen-Re was considered responsible for aiding the Kings armies in forcing out the Hyskos. This made the god very popular with people as well as being a powerful state god. Even though he was a powerful god other gods still abounded and were worshiped. Orisis the goddess of death was one such popular goddess. The name Amen means hidden. He was viewed as an unseen god. The god of air. One of the eight gods a pre creation. Because he was the hidden god his shrine was in the
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Centre for Enegry, Petroleum, Mineral Law and Policy ABSTRACT: Centre for Enegry, Petroleum, Mineral Law and Policy ABSTRACT: 1. INTRODUCTION2. HUMAN RIGHTS AND CSR2.1. HUMAN RIGHTS WHICH ARE PARAMOUNT IN EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES2.2.Ã THE ROLE OF NGOs2.3. THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT3. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT OF EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES3.1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN AND ENVIROMENTAL RIGHTS3.2. WHO ARE THE MAJOR STAKEHOLDERS 3.3. PARTICULAR IMPACT ON IPs4. CSR MEASURES4.1. RESPONSIBILITY OF CORPORATE DIRECTOR4.2. CORPORATE ACCOUNTABILITYÃ BIBLIOGRAPHYRelated ABSTRACT: The concept of human rights have been if not generally but to some degree understood. How it is important for every man to have his own dignity and freedom to move however not everyone understands how closely related environmental right and human rights are related a health environment gives way to a right to live a healthy life which is one of the first and basic human right Ã¢â¬Å"right to lifeÃ¢â¬ . TNCs are due to the nature of their projects closely related to human right issues as well as environmental issues the in most cases constitute the highest number of human rights abuses by their very presence in a community. If the handle the human rights and environmental rights issue adequately then a lot of bloodshed and pollution can be avoided but if not then a lot of harm than good may be the order of the day. This is where CSR comes in the CSR norms help TNCs to avoid disasters from occurring. But the question is, is the CSR norms enough, the companies will have to incorporate them into their policies and not just that but to also develop a strong report system that would help the company filter any form of abuse. Complicity by the company in the face of human rights abuse is also too good. This paper would highlight on cases of abuse and how it affects the local people and how the TNCs can help avoid both human and environmental abuse and NGOs fit in in all of these. 1. INTRODUCTION Human rights are fundamental principles which give any individual the right to freedom of a dignified life, freedom from fear and the freedom to express his/her beliefs.The TNCs should be careful with the effects of mining and exploration activities on the human rights of employees and surrounding communities because obtaining a strong social licence to operate in those communities depends on how much the TNCs respect the human rights of the local people. Integrating human rights rules into core business practice in the mining sector is important, it is a corporate responsibility. Ã While the basic need to protect and promote human rights is the immediate responsibility of the national governments, TNCs also has a distinct responsibility to respect human rights as well. Some International Companies especially those who are signed under the UN Global Compact, including mining and resource companies refer to human rights in their annual event reports and incorporate and implement hum an rights into their regulations and policies.Chapter two of this research looks at the human rights abuses that are commonly found in extractive industries. Chapter three looks at the environmental impacts of extractive industries and how it affects IPs. Chapter four looks at the CSR measures and how companies and directors are held accountable for their actions and the final chapter concludes and gives recommendations on how CSR can be promoted. 2. HUMAN RIGHTS AND CSR As provided in the OECD Guidelines for TNCs, extractive industries have to respect the human rights of those affected by their activities and practices consistent with both international and national laws of the host government. They also have to contribute to the economic, social and environmental development of the host government with a view to achieving sustainable development. 2.1. HUMAN RIGHTS WHICH ARE PARAMOUNT IN EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES There are distinct human right issues peculiar to extractive industries which concerns all TNC companies. The following are some of the more reoccurring cases of human right abuse: Labour practices with respect to human rights Extractive companies, have a responsibility and duty to make sure that employees enjoy basic labour rights such as, a safe workplace, reasonable living wage, non-discriminatory against sex, HIV and so on collective bargaining and child-labour. Environmental issues with respect to human rights Environmental activities of extractive companies have the tendency to affect a variety of basic rights including the rights to life, good health and an adequate standard of living; which includes access to basic food, clothing, water, housing and sanitation. Governments should also ensure that both multinational and national enterprises provide sufficient safety and health standards for their employees. The government has a duty to ensure the welfare of its citizens. Rights of Indigenous peoples and other community Extractive industries need land or the rights to use it. In most cases, land is already in use by others (IPs), and other times it is part of a communityÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic or traditional resources. In most cases land involves the resettlement of communities. Failure to address resettlement, native title and customary land use issues or forced eviction of the IPs, will cause animosity and conflict towards a project. Security issues with respect to human rights Extractive companies often find themselves in conflict-prone countries. This often means that an industry will employ its own security, or rely on law enforcement of the host government to protect assets and employees. In most unfortunate cases they companyÃ¢â¬â¢s security become involved in local violence. A mining company could be complicit in human rights abuses committed by a security provider. 2.2.Ã THE ROLE OF NGOs Within the NGO world, there are many different methods or techniques of dealing with TNCs: some try to draw corporations into dialogue or conference sessions where TNCs can express their views, more like a communication link, in order to persuade and convince them to accept voluntary codes of conduct, while others believe that corporations will take action only when their financial interests are Ã¢â¬Ëon the lineÃ¢â¬â¢, and therefore take a more adverse stance toward them. The latter view is more in line with labour union strategies and approaches. Confrontational NGOs tend to employ moral stigmatization, or Ã¢â¬Å"naming and shaming,Ã¢â¬ as their primary tactic, while NGOs that favor engagement offer or propose dialogue and a limited form of cooperation with willing TNCs. There are different reasons why NGOsÃ¢â¬â¢ are interest in the business sector, however the most common and the most important reason is the perception or belief that political and economic power has shifted away from governments and toward TNCs. The traditional roles NGOs normal play in cases of human right abuses is to gather information, analysis and dissemination of human rights concerns, the help in advocating for better HRs observance and accountability. The also develop and lobby for human rights laws and standards. They give legal aid and humanitarian relief to victims of human right abuses. They punish TNCs by moral shaming and praise. NGOs promote CSR by research, reporting and media exposure, by dialogue with TNCs, by holding TNCs socially responsible and accountable for their actions. Ã¢â¬Å"In the 1 9 8 0s the corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda was significantly broadened when, in the wake of Bhopal, Exxon Valdez, and other highly publicized environmental disasters, the NGO environmental movement pressed home the idea that TNCs must also protect the environment, thus further expanding the notion that corporations have social responsibilities. From the early 1990s on, human rights NGOs and other voices within civil society have been calling upon corporations to accept responsibility for promoting labor rights, human rights, environmental quality, and sustainable development. The contemporary CSR movement aims to persuade MNCs to adopt voluntary codes of conduct and implement business practices that incorporate commitments to respect and protect labor rights and human rights as well as the environment. The voluntary CSR approach is not the only NGO strategy. Another influential school of thought within the NGO world views MNCs as constitutionally unredeemable and incapable of voluntarily acting in a socially responsible fashion; companies can only be made to be socially and environmentally accountable by means of economic coercion or through binding legal obligations. Those who take this view look toward the development of a mass social movement that will compel governments to enact enforceable international legal standards that will make TNCs legally accountable to global society. Private voluntary CSR initiatives are viewed as exercises in corporate public relations and as poor substitutes for strict legal regulation. Of ten allied philosophically and strategically with unions, NGO activists who take this view m ay seek to support traditional union organizing efforts to win rights and fair compensation for workers worldwide through collective bargaining agreements with free labou r unions.Ã¢â¬ 2.3. THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT It is the responsibility of the government to protect as well as ensure that the rights of the members of the community are not abused. Recommendations for measures to be taken by the government to avoid further human rights violations in mining communities: 1. Ensure that IPs that get their livelihood from the land receive adequate compensation and access to alternative land for farming and if possible fishing according to Section 74 of the Minerals and Mining Act of 2006; for example the Ghanaian government ensures that the support the Regulation on Compensation for IPs according to the Act as provided as a matter of urgency. 2. Establish and strengthen the mandate and the capacity of a Governmental Environmental body so that it can effectively prevent the contamination and destruction of water sources. 3. Enable and establish laws and courts for the Human Rights cases national and locally to play a decisive role in investigating alleged human rights violations in mining communities, in revising legislation and to educate the people of their human rights 4. to look into cases of alleged human rights violations committed by military and police in this context 5. Ensure that local police is able and trained to act independent of the interests of multinational mining companies. 3. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT OF EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES Corporate environmental and social responsibility has been seen in recent times to overlap each other. It is a known fact that some business activities have negative environmental implications. Mining, oil drilling, chemical production and waste disposal projects all have possibilities of disrupting or harm ecosystems and the environment, such activities and practices may also compromise the rights of people who are affected. Certain groups may be geographically more vulnerable to environmental pollution because of their way of life, the nature of their economy and socio-economic status. Although international human rights laws contain few clean-cut provisions relating to the environment rights, many fundamental human rights Ã¢â¬â to life, to health, to privacy, non-discrimination and self-determination, for example Ã¢â¬â can have significant environmental dimensions. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1972, an international meeting formulated, for the first time, the issue of environmental protection specifically in terms of a Ã¢â¬Å"right to environmentÃ¢â¬ commencing the process of explicitly linking environmental law with human rights. Since then, there has been an increasing recognition international, that Ã¢â¬Å"human rights, an economically sound environment, sustainable development and peace are interdependent and indivisible.Ã¢â¬ In April 2001, the UN Commission on Human Rights, for the first time concluded that everyone has the right to live in a world free from toxic pollution and environmental degradationÃ¢â¬ . 3.1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN AND ENVIROMENTAL RIGHTS The right to a safe environment has been emphasized as a vital component of fundamental human rights. In most cases, environmental deterioration leads to human rights iniquities and quite often, human rights abuse involves serious ecological interruptions. In the United States, for example, the transformation and fusion of civil rights and environmental justice movements have been especially instrumental in dealing with the problems of inequitable distribution of environmental pollution and associated health effects caused by the activities of powerful corporations and the host government. Strong environmental movements and effective legislative responses to hazardous waste disposal have drastically increased the costs of hazardous waste management, making exporting of industrial wastes quite attractive. Toxic waste dumping represents one of several activities that involve serious human rights abuse, ecological disruptions, and environmental injustice. Other activities such as natural resource exploitation by the state and Multinational Corporations (MNCs), land acquisition, and large-scale economic development projects are also involved with human rights abuse. Over the past years, the world has witnessed a high number of cases which had involved and is still involving ecological and human rights abuses ranging from the military government extermination of indigenous population in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, to ecological assaults and human rights violations in Africa and other developing countries and the all suggest the need to include environmental rights as a significant component of human rights issues. Most recently, increased global awareness of environmental and human rights problems has broadened the civil, political, and socioeconomic rights to encompass environmental dimension. 3.2. WHO ARE THE MAJOR STAKEHOLDERS There are several stakeholders in the CSR effort. These include: government, mining Companies, institutions especially the UNO and its agencies like ILO, the local community, consumers of mineral products, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) suppliers, managers, under-represented stakeholders; The State (Government): Many mineral-rich developing countries generate enormous revenues from mining. Unfortunately, many of them do not have in place, policies that can ensure effective management of such revenues for the well-being of their citizens. The state has a very important role to play in ensuring responsible behaviour by all the other stakeholders, especially the MNCs that operate within their jurisdiction. Indeed, some analysts are of the opinion that governments are the only stakeholders that can have the most impact in creating incentives and disincentives for responsible action. The government can use both regulatory and economic instruments to enhance CSR in the operations of MNCs. The Mining Companies Suffice to emphasise that private investment in mining, as in other commercial undertakings is for the purpose of making profit. In this regard, it is necessary to appreciate the limits of what MNCs can do and what the government can ask them to do. This legitimate aspiration, however, should be without prejudice to the fact that MNCs should pay attention to their conduct as it affects other stakeholders especially with regards to upholding human rights norms. Investors Investors can be warned or informed of potential environmental risks and liabilities and to the benefits for them, from good practice in mining. Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) Increased national and international NGO activity and assistance have improved peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of their rights, bringing with such awareness a greater articulation of their demands and grievances. Their cases have also been brought forward to the international forum thereby bringing pressure to bear on both states and mining companies for a rectification of some of the worst practices. The role of some NGOs lack transparency and accountability. Development Assistance Agencies/multinational institutions Development assistance institutions such as the World Bank are increasingly coming under pressure to implement environmental and human rights standards within their lending and assistance programmes. There is, however, a lot more to do in the area of implementation of human as well as environmental rights initiatives. The World Trade Organisation with its strong judicial system can go a long way in helping to incorporate human and environmental rights in TNCs policies, simply by demanding for it before have any form of dealings with the said company or host government. Others may include the UN Global contact and ILO. 3.3. PARTICULAR IMPACT ON IPs Some of the recent cases of environmental injustice and human rights violations are: the murder of Francisco Mendes and Wilson Pinheiro in the Amazon rain forest, the public hanging of Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other members of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) in Nigeria and the massacre of Father Nery Lito Satur and several others in the Philippines,. There have been several other cases of government agents especially in other developing countries, where the host government does nothing to stop human right abuse against members of minority groups and local communities so asÃ to take over their lands and natural resources. The oppression of indigenous minority groups extends to ecological and environmental degradation. Exploitation and pollution of natural resources, including energy production, timber harvesting, mineral extraction, oil exploration and other industrial projects by MNCs, has caused significant damages. These damages include dislocation and displacement of numerous indigenous and local communities and their entire ways of life. In many developing countries, indigenous peoples, minority groups and other vulnerable and impoverished communities, including subsistence peasants, fishing communities and hunters in some cases traders are generally the victims of environmental pollution mostly caused by resource extractive operations of MNCs in the name of global development. Ã¢â¬Å"Over the past years, there have been about documented cases of hazardous wastes dumping in Eastern Europe, in Asia, in Latin America, and in Africa. Specific cases include dioxin-laden industrial wastes exported from Philadelphia to Guinea and Haiti in 1987; radioactive milk exported to Jamaica by EC in 1978; and other toxic elements exported by Italian firms to the town of Koko in Nigeria; and several other similar cases involving a systematic dumping of hazardous wastes to these regions. Within the past decade, several Third World nations including Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Guinea, Haiti, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Syria, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe have been targeted for toxic waste dumping. Increased toxic waste dumping and CO2 emissions are directly related to poor quality of life and adverse health conditions in these countriesÃ¢â¬ . 4. CSR MEASURES CSR measures vary depending on varying factors and geographical location of the TNC. The Australian Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services in 2006 in its report: Corporate Responsibility: Managing Risk and Creating Value, stated: That the committee strongly supports further successful involvement in the voluntary CSR measures and wide adoption of corporate responsibility. The committee has formed the view that obligatory methods to regulating directorÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and to sustainability reporting are not suitable. However some people argue that the government should be Ã more in CSR related issues. They argue that the host government needs both to improve civil and market regulation of corporations, and also to strengthen corporate law. They agree that the threat of litigation against TNCs is more effective. Ã¢â¬Å"Kolk and van Tulder (2002) critically examine the effectiveness of voluntary corporate codes of conduct by a study of child labour codes developed by six international garment companies. Overall, the research shows that corporate codes are important, though not the only, instruments for addressing child labour. Sandra Polaski reports on an innovative policy experiment in Cambodia that links improvement of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights with increased orders and market access for the products of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s garment factories. The policy originated with the US-Cambodia Textile Agreement, which awarded Cambodia higher garment export quotas into the US market in return for improved working conditions and labor regulations. She concludes that the agreementÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness has depended on a regulatory role for the ILO, Ã¢â¬Ëacting as a compliance monitor and government intervention, preventing some apparel producers from free riding on othersÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ . 4.1. RESPONSIBILITY OF CORPORATE DIRECTOR While some people are of the view that the sole responsibility of the directors are to the shareholders and other financial issues as has been stated in common law others are of the view that directors have the duty to incorporate human rights into the company policies and rules, inform the stakeholders as well as the shareholders any potential human and environmental abuses that may occur in the life of the operation. The should take into account the labour issues, while setting employing rules and any environmental pollution that is inevitable and best to compensate the people involved. 4.2. CORPORATE ACCOUNTABILITY Corporate accountability is all about the TNCs being held accountable for the actions the take especial subsidiaries of International companies abroad in developing countries. For example, KAIROS is concerned about the growing pattern of Canadian extractive companies, whose international activities are having a negative impact on the environment and human rights, including the rights of Indigenous peoples.Ã KAIROS advocates for binding legislation to hold corporations accountable in Canada for abuses committed internationally. 5. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION TNCs should, within the framework of both national and international laws, in the communities in which they operate, take a proper account of the need to protect the environment and public health and generally to carry out their practices in a manner contributing to sustainable development. Most importantly, enterprises should: 1. Inaugurate and maintain a system or a scheme of environmental administrative body appropriate to the company. 2. Determine, the foreseeable environmental, health, and safety-related impacts related with the projects of the company over their full life cycle. Where these proposed activities and practices could have noticeable environmental, health, or safety impacts, the company should prepare a proper environmental impact assessment. 3. Support plans for preventing and mitigating environmental and health problems from their operations and to maintain systems for immediate reporting to the competent authorities. 4. To incorporate human right into the company policy and have a strong system for reporting abuses. 5. The company should not take part in local violence and neither should they keep silent when such violence occurs in their area of operation or because of their operation. 6. The company should contribute to the development of environmentally meaningful and economically efficient public policy. Ã BIBLIOGRAPHY SECONDARY SOURCE BOOKS Boeger, N., Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility(Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, United Kingdom, 2008). Mullerat, R., International Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Corporations in the Economic Order of the 21st Century (Kluwer Law International, BV, the Netherlands, 2010). Sullivan, R., Business and Human Rights: Delimmas and Solutions (Greenleaf Publishing Limited, United Kingdom, 2003). ARTICLES Adeola,O.F., Environmental Injustice and Human Rights Abuse: The State MNCs and Repression of Amnesty Groups in the World System. Human Ecology Review, Vol.8, No.1, 2009. International Council on Human Rights Policy, Beyond Voluntarism Human Rights and the Developing International Legal Obligations of Concern (February 2002) Tripartite Declaration of Principles Concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy-International Labour Organisation. November 2000 OTHERS INTERNET Australian Human Rights Commission, Good Practice, Good Business 2009, at human rights .gov.au/human_rights/corporate_social_responsibility (last visited on July 9, 2011) Corporate accountability news, at kairoscanada.org/en/sustainability/corporate-accountability/ OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 2008, at oecd.org/publishing /corrigenda (last visited on July 9, 2011).
Sunday, March 8, 2020
The Evolution of Insects From Prehistory Onward Goliath beetles and sphinx moths would be described as large by just about anyone living today, but some prehistoric insects would dwarf these evolutionary descendants. During the Paleozoic era, the Earth teemed with giant insects, from dragonflies with wingspans measured in feet, to mayflies nearly 18 inches in breadth. While over a million insect species live today, truly giant insects no longer exist. Why did giant insects live in prehistoric times, but disappear from the Earth over time? When Were Insects the Biggest? The Paleozoic era occurred 542 to 250 million years ago. It is divided into six periods of time and the last two saw the development of the largest insects. These were known as the Carboniferous period (360 to 300 million years ago) and the Permian period (300 to 250 million years ago). Atmospheric oxygen is the single most limiting factor on insect size. During the Carboniferous and Permian periods, atmospheric oxygen concentrations were significantly higher than they are today. Prehistoric insects breathed air that was 31 to 35 percent oxygen, as compared to just 21 percent oxygen in the air youre breathing right now.Ã The largest insects lived during the Carboniferous period. It was the time of the dragonfly with over a two-foot wingspan and a millipede that could reach ten feet. As conditions changed in the Permian period, the bugs diminished in size. Yet, this period did have its share of giant cockroaches and other insects we would certainly classify as giants. How Did the Bugs Get So Big? The cells in your body get the oxygen they need to survive via your circulatory system. Oxygen is carried by the blood through your arteries and capillariesÃ to each and every cell in your body. In insects, on the other hand, respiration occurs by simple diffusion through the cell walls. Insects take in atmospheric oxygen through spiracles, openings in the cuticle through which gasses enter and exit the body. Oxygen molecules travel via the tracheal system. Each tracheal tube ends with a tracheole, where the oxygen dissolves into the tracheole fluid. The O2 then diffuses into the cells. When oxygen levels were higher as in the prehistoric era of giant insects this diffusion-limited respiratory system could supply sufficient oxygen to meet the metabolic needs of a larger insect. Oxygen could reach cells deep within the insects body, even when that insect measured several feet long. As atmospheric oxygen decreased over evolutionary time, these innermost cells could not be adequately supplied with oxygen. Smaller insects were better equipped to function in a hypoxic environment. And so, insects evolved into smaller versions of their prehistoric ancestors. The Biggest Insect That Ever Lived The current record holder for the largest insect that ever lived is an ancient griffenfly.Ã Meganeuropsis permianaÃ measured an impressive 71 cm from wing tip to wing tip, a full 28-inch wing span. This giant invertebrate predator inhabited what is now the central U.S. during the Permian period. Fossils of the species were discovered in Elmo, Kansas and Midco, Oklahoma. In some references, it is calledÃ Meganeuropsis americana. Meganeuropsis permianaÃ is one of the prehistoric insects referred to as giant dragonflies. David Grimaldi, in his hefty volumeÃ Evolution of the Insects, notes this is a misnomer. Modern day odonates are only distantly related to the giants known as prodonata. Other Giant, Ancient Arthropods An ancient sea scorpion,Ã Jaekelopterus rhenaniae, grew to 8 feet in length. Imagine a scorpion bigger than man! In 2007, Markus Poschmann unearthed a fossilized claw from this massive specimen in a German quarry. The claw measured 46 centimeters, and from this measurement, scientists were able to extrapolate the size of the prehistoric eurypterid (sea scorpion).Ã Jaekelopterus rhenaniaeÃ lived between 460 and 255 million years ago. A millipede-like creature known as anÃ ArthropleuraÃ reached equally impressive sizes.Ã ArthropleuraÃ measured as long as 6 feet, and 18 inches wide. While paleontologists have yet to find a complete fossil ofÃ Arthropluera, trace fossils found in Nova Scotia, Scotland, and the United States suggest the ancient millipede would rival an adult human being in size. Which Living Insects Are the Biggest? With well over one million insect species on Earth, the title of Biggest Living Insect would be an extraordinary achievement for any bug. Before we can confer such an award to a single insect, however, we need to determine how we measure bigness. What makes a bug big? Is it sheer bulk that defines a creature as large? Or something we measure with a ruler or tape measure, determined by centimeters? In truth, which insect wins the title depends on how you measure an insect, and who you ask. Measure an insect from the front of the head to the tip of the abdomen, and you can determine its body length. That might be one way to choose the biggest living insect. If thats your criteria, your newest world champion was crowned in 2008, when entomologists discovered a new stick insect species in Borneo. Chans megastick,Ã Phobaeticus chain, measures a full 14 inches from head to abdomen, and a full 22 inches if you stretch the tape measure to include its extended legs. Stick insects dominate the competition in the longest insect category. Prior to the discovery of Chans megastick, another walkingstick,Ã Pharnacia serratipes, held the title. For many insects, its wings spread far wider than the size of its body. Would wing span be a good measure of an insects size? If so, youre looking for a champion among theÃ Lepidoptera. Of all the living insects, butterflies and moths have the largest wing spans. The Queen Alexandras birdwing,Ã Ornithoptera alexandrae, first earned the title of the worlds largest butterfly in 1906, and in over a century, no larger butterfly has been discovered. This rare species, which lives only in a small area of Papua New Guinea, can measure over 25 cm from wing tip to wing tip. While thats impressive, a moth would hold the biggest living insect title if wing span was the sole criteria. The white witch moth,Ã Thysania agrippina, outstretches any other Lepidoptera with a wing span of up to 28 cm (or 11 inches). If youre looking for a bulky bug to anoint as the biggest living insect, look to theÃ Coleoptera. Among theÃ beetles, youll find several species with a body mass that is the stuff of science fiction movies. GiantÃ scarabsÃ are known for their impressive size, and among this group, four species remain deadlocked in the competition for biggest:Ã Goliathus goliatus,Ã Goliathus regius,Ã Megasoma actaeon, andÃ Megasoma elephas. A lone cerambycid, the aptly namedÃ Titanus giganteus, is equally massive. According to the Book of Insect Records, researched and compiled by the University of Florida, there is no credible way to break theÃ tie between these five speciesÃ for the title of bulkiest bug. Finally, theres one last way to think of bigness when it comes to insects Ã¢â¬â weight. We could put insects on a scale, one by one, and determine which is biggest by grams alone. In that case, theres a clear winner. The giant weta,Ã Deinacrida heteracantha, hails from New Zealand. An individual of this species weighed in at 71 grams, though its important to note the female specimen was carrying a full load of eggs at the time she stepped on the scale. So which of these insects should be called the biggest living insect? It all depends on how you define big. Sources University of Bristol (2007, November 21). Giant Fossil Sea Scorpion Bigger Than Man. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 22, 2011, fromÃ ScienceDaily.Sues, Hans-Dieter (2011, January 15).Ã Largest Land-Dwelling Bug of All Time. National Geographic News Watch. Retrieved March 22, 2011.Evolution of the Insects, by David Grimaldi.Dudley, Robert. (1998). Atmospheric Oxygen, Giant Paleozoic Insects and the Evolution of Aerial Locomotor Performance. The Journal of Experimental Biology 201, 1043Ã¢â¬â1050.Dudley, Robert. (2000). The Evolutionary Physiology of Animal Flight: Paleobiological and Present Perspectives. Annual Review of Physiology, 62, 135Ã¢â¬â55.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Organization Culture - Case Study Example According to the report findings the CCO is tasked with the responsibility of protecting the culture of the organization as it undergoes growth and development. The growth of a company reduces the number of activities that can be controlled directly by the management. Therefore, it is reasonable to appoint someone who can make sure the organizational culture does not deviate from the foundational values and beliefs that facilitated success and growth of the organization.As the study stresses a Chief Cultural Officer in this organization would be responsible for setting the tone for communication. The organization has a diverse workforce with people from different backgrounds. The COO would be expected to monitor communication and liaise with the Head of Human Resource on how to improve effectiveness.Ã The COO would also be tasked with the responsibility of defining the goals of the organization and aligning all the departments. This is a very crucial responsibility because the org anization was started to achieve specific goals.Ã Success and greed can make organization members to deviate from the principles and values of the organization. Ensuring the goals of the organization are remembered is necessary. It is also an opportunity to make new employees understand the importance of being motivated by the mission and vision of the organization. The COO should explain these goals to gain their support.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Rising gas prices - Research Paper Example ed April 19, 2012 entitled Ã¢â¬Å"More Gas Price Cuts Likely SoonÃ¢â¬ , gas prices appear to have peaked and are likely to head lower in the coming weeks, supported by gasoline futures dropping four days in a arrow and a slight decline in pump prices in the past couple of weeks. Overall, the increase in gas prices may decrease consumer spending and gross domestic production but through technology, we may revert to substitutes that lessen our gas consumption. The effect of gas prices, from fundamental microeconomic analysis follows assumptions on the demand for gas, both in the short run and in the long run. One of the assumptions about the demand for gas is that it may be price elastic in the long run but may be very inelastic in the short run, as people take time to for change their consumption habits (Pindyck and Rubinfeld 2005). When gas prices increase, in the short run, quantity demanded will fall only gradually as motorists and drivers may begin to use their vehicles less. In addition to this, the demand for gas is very much linked to the usage of cars and transportation, and it is not so easy to simply change from driving your car to work to using a bicycle. This is not to mention that almost all transport vehicles including trains and ships use some form of petroleum and gas, hence either the producer of a good or service or the customer will most likely take in the increase of gas prices. In essence, this leads to either lower production to reduce costs of firms, or lower consumer spending, to save up money for gas (Pindyck and Rubinfeld 2005). While in the short run, an increase in the price of gasoline has only a small effect in the quantity of gasoline demanded, in the long run, various changes in the transportation may lead to less demand for gas, thus making its demand elastic. Technology in general may shift to more fuel-efficient vehicles, thus consumer spending comes back to its natural level. Historically, this assumption has been supported by the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Florida Merid Award Program evaluation - Term Paper Example A school district may make available extra pay supplements for the workers who display good work attendance. The awarding of the additional payment is done in accordance with an assessment of the performance of the employee. Student performance, mainly, forms the base for the assessment. School-based administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment is based on studentÃ¢â¬â¢s (as a group) performance. School teachers get evaluated by the school principal while school-based administrators get evaluated by the district superintendents. The evaluation is done in relation to their (teachers and administrators) specific assessments (Chait, 2007). Teachers form a foundation of all reform efforts in education. Improvement of teaching workforce quality results to the success of the teachers. According to research, a well performing teacher is an asset to all students, especially those who live in poverty. In merit pay for teachers, teachers are offered incentives in form of money so as to improve the performance of students in their respective classes and performance of the school at large (Buddin et al, 2007). The Florida merit award program has proved to be successful and advantageous in a number of ways. Some of the strengths of the program include: The program also motivates employees. Research indicates that an increase of one percent may increase the performance of the employees by about two percent. However, providing bonuses for good performance is more effective as compared to automatic pay rise since it can elevate the performance of an employee to as much as nineteen percent Merit award program attracts qualified applicants or candidates to the profession of teaching, since incomes vary largely and have a basis on the strength of local teachers unions and local tax revenue The results received are positive. The program enhances high productivity or increased work quality as result of employees working
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
MRKT - Marketing Real-World Write-ups - Article Example B2B transactions differ from other transactions because they require coordination between different persons. A research study in which over 1500 businesses participated led the following findings: 93.2% of the participants make B2B by making a search online; 95.5% of the participants used search engine at some point in the B2B process; 63.9% of the participants choose search engine information over consumer review sites. There were other interesting conclusions that were arrived after the study. The most popular search engine is Google. GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s market share of traffic in the United States is 72.11% (Googlesystem). The use of the internet improves supply chain logistics of a company because it reduces the amount of intermediaries. The use of a website can serve as a communication channel that improves communication between businesses. Search engine research takes place one to two months prior to the buying decision. The position of the search engine result is very influential in the behavior of the surfer. Approximately 60% of users click at the first three results only. It takes users seconds to decide which site to click after a click scan. Search engines are primarily used in the early and mid stages of the buying cycle. It is imperative for businesses to design their website well in order to optimize them to attract traffic from customers that are interested in the products or services your company offers.